Sansei and Beyond

photograph of smiling japanese-canadian woman in her forties; long dark hair, dangling earing, wearing short-sleeved grey blouse

Wendy Takeda, 2011. Born and raised in Lethbridge, Alberta, Wendy is the eldest daughter of Minoru and Katie Koyata. She attended the University of Alberta to become a physical therapist in 1987 and went on to pursue a Master's Degree in Science researching the effectiveness of acupuncture in 1992. She achieved a doctorate in Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1998, and practices in her own clinic, specializing in the Japanese tradition of acupuncture.
Courtesy of Wendy Takeda

The Sansei are the third generation, children of the Nisei. Most are not old enough to remember the events of World War II, which were rarely discussed by relatives and family. Most Sansei were raised in homes in which, except for food, there were few visible evidences of Japanese culture.

The fourth generation, the Yonsei, gets further away from their cultural roots but their ethnicity is written upon their faces, and they are still subject to subtle forms of racism and exclusion.

A fifth generation of Japanese Canadians, known as Gosei is now being born.

Hapa is a term for persons of mixed non-Japanese and Japanese race.

Go to The Sansei and Beyond chapter for a more indepth look or continue to the next section “The Shin Issei